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A dark viscous residual fuel obtained by blending mainly heavier components from crude distillation unit, short residue and clarified oil from fluidized catalytic cracker unit.
Bunker fuel, furnace oil, Fuel oil are other names for the same product. Though Fuel oil is a general term applied to any oil used for generation of power or heat, Fuel oil can included distillates and blends of distillates and residue such as Light Diesel Oil.
Furnace oil in the current marketing range meets Bureau of Indian Standards Specification IS : 1593 - 1982 for fuel oils, grade
Viscosity is the most important characteristic in the furnace oil specification. It influences the degree of pre-heat required for handling, storage and satisfactory atomization. If the oil is too viscous it may become difficult to pump, burner may be hard to light and operation may be erratic. Poor atomization may result in the carbon deposits on the burner tips or on the walls. The upper viscosity limit for furnace oil is such that it can be handled without heating in the storage tank is excepting under server cold conditions. Pre-heating is necessary for proper atomization.
As per the Controller of Explosives classification, Furnace oil falls in the class "C" category with minimum flash point standard of 66 deg. C. Since Penskey Martens Closed Cup method is used, it is apparent that a small quantity of low boiling point hydrocarbons is sufficient to lower the flash point drastically.
It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which Furnace Oil is readily pump able. In the specification the pour point of Furnace oil is not stipulated. However, for Furnace oil manufactured indigenous and for imported parcels, the pour point is such that current supplies normally can be handled without heating the fuel oil handling installation.